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Improve Quality Performance in Manufacturing Plant

Li Mei

Référence bibliographique à rappeler pour tout usage / Please, use this reference when you refer this work
Improve Quality Performance in Manufacturing Plant, Li Mei, Stage professionnel de fin d'études, MASTER Management de la Qualité (MQ-M2) Université de Technologie de Compiègne, 2010-2011, 
URL : http://www.utc.fr/master-qualite, "Travaux, Qualité-Management", réf n° 188

ABSTRACT

Kerneos plant at Fos-sur-Mer is the most important calcium aluminates manufactory in France. Its location and its capacity allow the great flexibility of product ranges, as well as to delivery innovation support to Kerneos Research Center. In 2010, some trials have been carried out in this plant in view of optimal use of resources and equipments. Achievements were obvious; however plant quality performance was not as stable as before. Taking the opportunity of my master study in quality management specialization of UTC, Kerneos industrial department has launched a project at Fos site, on purpose of improving quality performance.
 

The methodology used to pilot the project is “7 Steps to solve problems”, combined with “PDCA” and “FMEA”. Starting from the analysis of quality result in year 2010, key quality incidents have been identified; then a root causes analysis has been produced aiming to one critical incident; through evaluation of current control measures, the weakness in the trial-production process at mixing station has been highlighted. An improving action plan with solutions was followed by PDCA method. In order to reinforce quality control for trials and changes, the method of process FMEA has been proposed and to be integrated into current quality management system.

 

Key Words: quality performance, improving, sovle problem, PDCA, FMEA

RÉSUMÉ

L’usine de Kerneos à Fos-sur-Mer est le site d’aluminates de calcium le plus important en France. Sa situation géographique et ses capacités industrielles permettent de produire une gamme variée de produits et représente également le site pilote pour les innovations mises au point par le Centre de recherche de Kerneos. Des essais ont été réalisés en 2010 à Fos en vue d’optimiser les ressources et les installations. Les réalisations sont indéniables, même si les performances qualité sont moins stables que par le passé. Dans le cadre de mon Master à l’UTC sur le management de la qualité, la Direction Industrielle Kerneos a lancé sur Fos un projet d’amélioration de la performance qualité.
 

La méthodologie utilisée pour piloter le projet est : « 7 étapes pour résoudre les problèmes », combinée au « PDCA » et à « l’AMDEC ». A partir de l’analyse des résultats qualité de 2010, les incidents qualité clés ont été identifiés. Puis un arbre des causes a été réalisé sur un incident critique. A travers l’évaluation des contrôles actuels, des points critiques ont été mis en évidence sur le processus d’essais de production à la station de mélange. Un plan d’action d’amélioration, comprenant des solutions, a été réalisé avec la méthode « PDCA ». Dans le but de renforcer la maîtrise qualité lors des fabrications et de la mise en place de nouveaux produits, la méthode « AMDEC » a été proposée pour être intégrée dans l’actuel système de management de la qualité.

 

Mots Clés : performance qualité, amélioration, résoudre problème, PDCA, AMDEC

 

                    

For reason of confidentiality, some values ​​in this report are fictitious and some graphs and figures are not visible.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 

As an employee from Kerneos branch in China, I would like to take this opportunity to express my deepest gratitude to my employer. Kerneos is an excellent company which has provided growth for my professional career over last ten years. Without the company’s support and facilitation, I could not realize my Master study in UTC.

The present project has been carried out in Kerneos plant at Fos sur Mer in France. I have received generous support and helps from a number of people who in different ways have contributed to the work. I would like to give my heartfelt thanks to following people:

To sponsor of project, Pierre Baillagou, for his orientation of the project and his great support.

To my supervisors, Didier Veyrat and Vincent Granier, for their constant guidance and kindly support throughout my work; for their valuable experience and detailed suggestions that greatly improved my understanding of in-depth research.

To management team of Fos sur Mer plant, especially to Pascal Lenfant and Christine Delaunay, for their enthusiastic participation and massive helps on daily basis.

To my tutor of UTC, Professor Jean Escande, for his teaching, his follow-up visiting and his valuable guidance; likewise to Professor Gilbert Farge and Professor Jean-Pierre Caliste, for their valuable courses and advice during my study.

Finally, I am in indebted to my family in China, for their endless love and continuous support that allowed me to develop my Master in France so far from them.

 

 

 


 

ACRONYM

 

AMDEC : Analyse des modes de défaillance, de leurs effets et de leur criticité

COQ : Certificate of Quality

FMEA : Potential Failure Modes and Effects Analysis

MQ : Quality Management Specialization

PDCA : Plan- Do - Check – Act, is an iterative four-step management process typically used in business.

PFMEA : Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis

QQOQCP : Qui Quoi Ou Quand Commend Pourquoi. The method 5 Ws in English – Who's Who, Where, When, How much, How and Why.

RPN : Risk Priority Numbers

UTC : University of Technology of Compiègne

 

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTION

1. Presentation of Kerneos

1.1 Kerneos in Brief

1.2 Strategy and Missions

1.3 Quality Management System

1.4 Manufactoring Process & Control

1.5 Kerneos Plant at Fos sur Mer

2. Definition of Project

3. Methodology and Planning

3.1 Seven Steps to solve prolems

3.2 PDCA

3.3 PFMEA

3.4 Projet Planning

4. Realization of Project

4.1. Explore and identify the problem

4.1.1. Analyze 2010 quality result

4.1.2. Proritize the key problem 

4.1.3. Define the key problem

4.2. Investigate and collect facts

4.3. Analyze root causes

4.3.1. Construct root causes diagram

4.3.2. Identify root causes

4.4. Prepare solutions and action plan

         4.4.1. Check effectiveness of existing control measures

4.4.2. Evaluate risks of root causes

             4.4.3. Program new action plan and get validation

4.5. Follow up action plan

4.6. Continous Improving with PFMEA

Step 1: Initialization

Step 2: Establishment of flowchart

Step 3: Identification and assessment of potential failures

Step 4: Prioritizing and defining the action plan

Step 5: Follow up action plan and verify its effectiveness

5. Result and Prospect

 

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

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LIST OF FIGURES

 

Figure 1: Three areas of strategy focus

Figure 2: Map of Kerneos Process

Figure 3: Documentation of quality management system

Figure 4: Improve quality process

Figure 5: Sintering and Fusion manufacturing process

Figure 6: Quality controls during manufacturing - Fusion

Figure 7: Manufacturing Process in Fos Plant

Figure 8: Key factors for an implementation of strategy

Figure 9: Orientation of 2011 quality objectives

Figure 10: Cycle of 7 steps to solve problems

Figure 11: PDCA Cycle

Figure 12: FMEA Cycle

Figure 13: Analysis of 2010 rejects - standard products

Figure 14: Analysis of 2010 rejects - new product AAA

Figure 15: Root cause analysis basic

Figure 16: Drawing of root cause of pollution incident

Figure 17: RPN

Figure 18: PDCA of improving trial production

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LIST OF TABLES

 

Table 1: Project Planning

Table 2: Prioritization of 2010 quality problems

Table 3: QQOQCP-Quality control of new product in mixing station

Table 4: Previous action plan and effectiveness

Table 5: Risk evaluation of root causes

Table 6: Comparison of solutions

Table 7: Reinforced action plan and follow up

Table 8: Process flow chart form

Table 9: Process FMEA form

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APPENDICES
 

Appendix 1: Kerneos process in the plant

Appendix 2: Develop new product process

Appendix 3: Root Causes Analysis Diagram

Appendix 4: Checklist of Transfer RM P

Appendix 5: Logic diagram of Production Process in Mixing Station

Appendix 6: PFMEA Ranking Reference Tables

Appendix 7: Fuel COQ analysis 

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INTRODUCTION 

As the world’s leading manufacturer of calcium aluminates, the ambition of Kerneos is to develop long-term relationships with customers in order to be their preferred supplier. The basic mission is to keep organic growth of performance and reliability, in which the quality is one of key factors to be successful.

Kerneos Fos site is the biggest calcium aluminates plant in France. Its location and its capacity allow the great flexibility of product ranges. Fos site has never stopped trialing and experimenting to deliver innovation to support the ambitions of Kerneos. In 2010, in view of optimal use of resources and equipments, some trials have been performed in the plant : modification of some raw materials, new products, new investment… accompanying with these changes, plant quality performance was not as stable as before, more rejects were produced. How to improve quality performance in the changing environment? It’s one of the key objectives of management team in 2011.

As part of my study in the specialization of quality management in UTC, Kerneos industrial department has decided to launch a project at Fos site, to improve quality performance.

The methodology used to pilot the project is “7 Steps to solve problems”, combined with PDCA and FMEA. These methods are formed in a comprehensive way in the report: The first chapter is the presentation of the Kerneos company and Fos site. The second chapter is definition of project, after that is the third chapter to explain the methodology and planning of project. The fourth chapter is devoted entirely to the key quality problem follow up the key steps: Identification à Investigation à Analysis of root causes à Solutions and action plan à Follow up à Induction of method FMEA in view of continuous improvement. The last chapter presents the result of project, experiences learnt and prospect of future work.

      

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1. Presentation of Keneos

1.1       Kerneos in Brief [5]
 

Kerneos is part of the MATERIS Group, one of the worldwide leaders in building construction specialty chemicals, whose majority shareholder is Wendel Investissement. With four divisions:

aluminates, additives, mortars and paints, MATERIS generated a turnover of approximately € 1,700 million in 2009 and employs approximately 8,800 people in 50 countries around the world.

 

 

Kerneos is the world leader of calcium aluminates.

Kerneos produces a varied range of high-tech calcium aluminate binders with the brand names CIMENT FONDU®, SECAR®, TERNAL®, PERAMIN®, ALAG®, CALCOAT®, SEWPERCOAT®, LDSF® and OPTIMET™.

These products, with numerous properties, are designed for refractory, building chemistry and technical concrete applications, mining, pipes and wastewater and metallurgical flux.

Kerneos has around 20 subsidiaries worldwide and its products are sold in more than 100 countries. In 2009, Kerneos generated a turnover of 290 million euros and currently employs 1,400 people around the world.

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A century history: THE ALUMINATES PIONEERS [1]

For a century now, Kerneos has been committed to continuous innovation, with the aim of developing new products, enabling applications that create added value for client industries to be created and to grow. Ever since it registered a patent for CIMENT FONDU® in 1908, Kerneos has continued to develop and exploit the numerous properties of calcium aluminates, in the form of high performance special binders and mineral reagents.

In the process, Kerneos has discovered and exploited the following properties of calcium aluminates, refractoriness, rapid hardening, abrasion and corrosion resistance as well as reactivity with other mineral and organic materials, in order to create innovative materials.

Driven by its customers’ needs and trends in their industry, today Kerneos is a key player in the refractory concrete, construction chemistry, iron and steel, wastewater and mining markets as well as in numerous construction and civil engineering sectors.

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PRODUCT AND APPLICATION
What are calcium aluminates?
Calcium aluminates are obtained by having lime and alumina react at high temperature. Lime (or calcium oxide) generally comes from limestone, alumina (or aluminum oxide) is contained in natural minerals such as bauxite, or is refined beforehand in the form of Bayer alumina. The product of this reaction between lime and alumina, after cooling, is a hard ore called calcium aluminate clinker.

 

This clinker when ground to a powder is called calcium aluminate cement (CAC). Depending on the proportion of alumina and lime as well as impurities in the minerals used, these powders may vary in colour from the whitest white via all shades of beige to jet black.

 

When mixed with water, these cements take on a pasty texture to rapidly harden forming a rigid solid, thus their generic hydraulic binder name meaning a powder that reacts with water to give a "cement".

 

Historically, calcium aluminates were first invented at the start of the 20th century to be used as hydraulic binders due to their improved corrosion resistance properties compared to other cements. They were largely developed between the two world wars because of their quick hardening property, even in cold weather, to rapidly recommission civil works. Lastly, their resistance to heat saw the rapid development of castable refractory concrete as a complement to or replacement of fire bricks.

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What are calcium aluminates for? [5]
 

The development of new application processes and the emphases on exceptional technical properties of calcium aluminate as a high performance binder and mineral reagent in a broad array of industries has been the mission of Kerneos for over one century. Kerneos has structured its business around its different markets, with specialized sales, technical and marketing networks spanning the entire globe. Kerneos is present in the following markets:

 

 

Refractory applications

Resistance to heat and to thermal shocks makes calcium aluminate a fundamental component of refractory applications.

Building chemistry applications

The TERNAL® range for dry mix mortars, is especially suited for floor self levelling, tile laying, concrete repairs, walls and renders and finishing… with PERAMIN® completing this product line, Kerneos has become a reference in the building chemistry applications.

Technical concrete applications

Calcium aluminate concretes have been recognized for centuries for their intrinsically long lives (especially in areas of abrasion, heat and corrosion) and rapid hardening, which allows for a very rapid completion and turnover of work.

Merchants

It offers simple and efficient solutions for all emergency work, as well as at difficult sites where the ordinary performance offered by Portland cements is not sufficient.

Mining
The rapid use and durability of concrete in an extreme environment are determining factors to a greater extent more than anywhere else.                

Pipes and Wastewater
Long known for their durability in acid and abrasive environments, calcium aluminate concrete and mortar are also considered to offer high performance for protecting sanitation networks due to their exceptional resistance to biogenic corrosion.

Metallurgical flux
The calcium aluminate-based synthetic flux have been a reference product for 25 years for many steelmakers producing all kinds of steels using all types of metallurgical equipment.

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1.2 Kerneos Strategy and Missions [2]

STRATEGY:

The ambition of Kerneos, the world’s leading manufacturer of calcium aluminates, is to:

MISSION:

The mission of Kerneos is to provide innovative technical solutions based on calcium aluminates to its customers on their various markets:

Figure 1: Three areas of strategy focus

 

 

The success of this ambition also relies on the values of Kerneos:

 

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1.3 Quality Management System [2]

Kerneos is thus committed to a process of quality management in order to:

The commitments of Kerneos as regards Quality include:

 

Kerneos’ Quality management system is thus ISO 9001 certified for the entire Design, Development, Marketing and Sales of calcium aluminates at world level.

 

Figure 2: Map of Kerneos Process

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The head of Quality Management System and Certifications is the company’s representative under the ISO 9001 norm. The head ensures that all processes required for the quality management system are set, implemented and maintained, and reports back to the Management on the running of the quality management system and any need for improvement.


The head leads a committee consisting of the Quality coordinators for each unit (functional department or plant).
 

The Quality Committee is responsible for:

 

The Quality Coordinators are under the authority of the Unit Director. As regards function, they report to the Head of Quality Management System and Certifications for all missions related to the application of the company’s Quality System.

 

Each Unit Director defines the level of authority and responsibility entrusted to its Quality Coordinator.

 

Documentation

The document control of the Quality Management System at Work is computerised. The managers of this IT application are the quality Coordinators.

Figure 3: Documentation of quality management system

 

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IMPROVE QUALITY PROCESS

 

This process aims to ensure the proper running of the processes, to make suggestions to improve the quality and to ensure improvement plans are implemented. This process is driven by the Head of the Quality Management System and Certifications and by the Quality committee.

Improvement actions are defined on the basis of:

- Regular reviews of the indicators

- Customers complaints

- Dysfunctions and internal nonconformities

- Audits and other observations

- Process reviews carried out by the pilots

 

They are recorded and followed:

- At each unit level in the way of projects, corrective or preventive actions.

- Centrally in the way of a consolidated improvement plan for monitoring progress by the quality committee on actions resulting from an internal or external audit, or from a complaint by a

customer.

 

 Figure 4: Improve quality process

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1.4. Manufacturing Process & Control

Kerneos manufactures calcium aluminates which are mainly composed of alumina and lime using two kinds of manufacturing processes:

 

Figure 5: Sintering and Fusion manufacturing process

 

 

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Quality controls during manufacturing [2]

In order to guarantee compliance with the internal specifications of the shipped products, qualitative and quantitative controls are performed throughout the production chain.

In the fusion plants:

 

Figure 6: Quality controls during manufacturing – Fusion

 

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 1.5. Kerneos Plant at Fos-sur-Mer

The project is implemented in the Kerneos Fos site that is located in Fos-sur-Mer of France. Fos site is remarkable in Kerneos both for his history and its capacity:   

 

 

Figure 7: Manufacturing Process in Fos Plant

 

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2. Defination of Project

2.1    Origin of Project

Operational Excellence is a pillar of Kerneos strategy, Quality towards the permanent search for Excellence, through the optimal use of resources & equipments at the benefit of customers, shareholders, employees.

 

Figure 8: Key factors for implementation of strategy

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In order to achieve optimal use of resources and equipments, during last several years, Kerneos industrial department has lunched a serie of actions in their manufacturing plants worldwide : increase of production capacity, use of alternative raw materials and fuels, industrializations of new products…… These new actions have brought obvious achievements, at same time, changes also brought variation of quality performance. In the short term, Kerneos has decided to give priority to reinforce the quality management of change.

 

 

Figure 9: Orientation of 2011 quality objectives

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Fos site is the biggest manufactory plant in Kerneos, as well as the biggest calcium aluminates plant in France. Its location and its capacity allow the great flexibility of product ranges, Fos site has never stopped trialing and experimenting to deliver innovation to support the ambitions of Kerneos. In 2010, in view of optimal use of resource and equipments, some trials had been implemented in the plant : new raw materials, new fuels, new products, new investment… accompanying with these changes, plant quality performance was not as stable as before, more rejects were produced. In 2011, the plant is facing new changes as well, how to avoid similar problems as in 2010? How to improve quality performance in changing environment? It’s one of key objectives of plant management team in 2011.

 

2.2      Objectives and Tasks

For above reasons, taking the opportunity of my study in the specialization of quality management in UTC, Kerneos industrial department has decided to lunch a project for Fos site :

Objective: Improving the quality performance in Fos site.

Tasks:

 

In order to reach the objective, I have translated above tasks into following questions:  

 

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2.3   Organisation

Project Team:

Supervisors of Kerneos:

Senior Quality Manager - Didier VEYRAT

Industriel Performance Director - Vincent GRANIER

Project team in Fos Site:

Performance Manger - Pascal LENFANT (Project Coordinator)

Quality Manager - Christine DELAUNAY

Process Engineer - Lisa MALCOTTI

Dispatch Engineer - Dominique TORGUE

Project Implementation - Mei LI

Period: 6 months

This project is started from middle of February 2011, and continued for six months.

 

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3. Methodology and Planning

The methodology used to pilot the project is “7 Steps to solve problems”, combined with PDCA and FMEA. These methods are formed in a comprehensive way in the report.

 

3.1 Seven steps to solve problems

I choose the method of “7 steps to solve problems” to pilot the project : Identification of a key problem à Investigation à Analyst of root causes à Solutions à Action plan à Follow up à Continuous improvement.  

 

 

Figure 10: Cycle of 7 steps to solve problem [6]

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From step 1 to step 4, I have chosen different tools to adapt the need of quality control or quality management, detailed explanation are in the 4th chapter of report : “ Realization of Project”.

From step 5 to step 7, I have inducted the method of PDCA to ensure the successful implementation of action plan and continuous improvement.

 

3.2 PDCA

 

Figure 11: PDCA Cycle [6]

 

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PDCA (plan–do–check–act) is an iterative four-step management process typically used in business. PDCA is a successive cycle which starts off small to test potential effects on processes, but then gradually leads to larger and more targeted change.

 

PLAN

Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the expected output (the target or goals). By making the expected output the focus, it differs from other techniques in that the completeness and accuracy of the specification is also part of the improvement.

DO 

Implement the new processes, often on a small scale if possible, to test possible effects. It is important to collect data for charting and analysis for the following "CHECK" step.

CHECK 

Measure the new processes and compare the results (collected in "DO" above) against the expected results (targets or goals from the "PLAN") to ascertain any differences. Charting data can make this much easier to see trends in order to convert the collected data into information. Information is what you need for the next step "ACT".

ACT 

Analyze the differences to determine their cause. Each will be part of either one or more of the P-D-C-A steps. Determine where to apply changes that will include improvement. When a pass through these four steps does not result in the need to improve, refine the scope to which PDCA is applied until there is a plan that involves improvement.

 

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3.3. PFMEA

Fos site has never stopped trialing and experimenting to deliver innovation to support the ambitions of Kerneos. By end of the project, the method of PFMEA has been inducted, in order to reinforce the quality control in the manufacturing process: starting from new product trial manufactory, this method will be integrated into current quality management system.

 

Figure 12: FMEA Cycle [11]

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Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a procedure in product development and operations management for analysis of potential failure modes within a system for classification by the severity and likelihood of the failures. A successful FMEA activity helps a team to identify potential failure modes based on past experience with similar products or processes, enabling the team to design those failures out of the system with the minimum of effort and resource expenditure, thereby reducing development time and costs. It is widely used in manufacturing industries in various phases of the product life cycle and is now increasingly finding use in the service industry.

PFMEA:

Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. It’s a systematized activity intended to Recognize and evaluate the potential for failure of a process and its effects. 

 

3.4 Project Planning

In order to make sure the progress of project, after discussed with project team, I have prepared a planning at beginning of project, with follow up remarks.

 

Table 1: Project Planning

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Basing on the general planning, I have also prepared short term action plans to follow up the progress weekly or monthly. (Please see Appendix.)

 

 

4. Realization of Project

4.1. Explore and identify problem

4.1.1. Analyze 2010 quality result :

Standard Products:

2010 Quality performance data:

(The data sheet is confidential)

From analyse of 2010 rejects, 3 parameters have been identified out of specification with high frequency, from the percentage, parameter R is the key one. 4. Realization of Project

 

Figure 13: Analysis of 2010 rejects - standard products

Analysis the evolution of parameter R:

(Figures and datas are confidential.)

From the evolution analysis of parmeter R and its elements, the cause of deviation has been focused on the quality of new fuel.

Problem identified

Current Control mesure:

Have stop using the new fuel in 2010.

Analysis of COQ of fuel supprliers:

In view of exploring the problem of fuel, an audit has been made on the Certificate of Quality delivered by suppliers. The characteristices provided at each delivery have been compared to the requested parameters and a summary has been sent to purchasing department to ask the suppliers to provide with each delivery a COQ including the requested parameters.

Please refer to APPENDIX 7. Fuel COQ Analysis

 

 

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New Product AAA

Analyse data of Rejects :

(Quality result data sheet is confidential)

From analyse of data of reject , 2 important parameters (P & C) have been identified as the key elements with reusult of out of specification.

 

Figure 14: Analysis of 2010 rejects - new product AAA

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Analysis of parameter P and parameter C:

(Figures and datas are confidential.

From evolution analysis of parmeter P and C, causes of deviation have been focused on two problems :

 

4.1.2. Prioritize the Key problem 

In 2010, some improvement actions have been performed for above problems. after review of current control situation and evaluation of the criticity, the problem of “Pollution of raw material in mixing station” has been identified as the key problem.

 

Table 2: Prioritization of 2010 quality problems

 

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4.1.3 Define the key problem

In order to clarify and define the problem, a QQOQCP has been produced after a specific meeting with project team.

 

 

Table 3: QQOQCP-Quality control of new product in mixing station

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4.2. Investigate and collect facts

Product AAA is a new product launched on the market in year 2010, its excellence performance is welcomed by customers. In 2011, sale forecast of AAA is multiplied by 3 times, production volume in mixing station will be increased from about 40 operations per month to 150 operations per month.

 

4.2.1. Observation of production

In order to understand the whole process of producing AAA, the first thing I did is observation in the workshops, from the preparation of the raw materials to the delivery of finish product, I have taken photos, and taken notes for key points.

 

Production of AAA is in the mixing station, raw material is stored in semi-product silos, need to transport by tank truck before each production.

 

During studying of production documents and data, it’s also important to confirm and double check all information on site. I have followed up production during three months.

 

4.2.2. Collect and study data and documents

There are two main departments concerning the production of AAA, Dispatch and Quality control. I have collected following documents from these two departments for study:

-          Operation manual of Mixing station

-          Production procedure

-          Production record

-          Quality control record

-          Checklist of transport raw material

-          Drawings: Mixing station, Mixer…

-          Quality incidents analysis reports

 

4.2.3. Interview people

Besides meeting with project team members, I have interviewed with following employees who are doing production and operation on site:

a) P. LEMIERRE: Technician of Dispatch Dept. à in charge of operation in mixing station;

b) P. OGGERO: Technician of Quality Dept. à in charge of quality control of new product in mixing station.

c) Other operators

During production, I have followed technician and operators in order to learn the real situation, clarify the facts and the information I have collected.

 

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4.3. Analyze root causes

4.3.1. Construct the root cause diagram

 

 

Figure 15: Root cause analysis basic [9]

 

Basing on the facts I have investigated and collected, a detailed cause tree diagram has been constructed through the logic way. The cause trees had been reviewed and updated several times till getting the final version with agreement of all concerned.

Please refer to Appendix 3: Root cause analysis diagram

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4.3.2. Identify root causes

The cause of pollution has been identified through analysis: during transporting raw material from expedition workshop to mixing station by tank truck, 10 tons cement was discharged into the tank truck by a mistake of manual switch valves between silos.

 

 

Figure 16: Drawing of root cause of pollution incident [3][4]

  

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Further analysis of the cause of human mistake, 4 root causes have been identified as below:

a)      Risk of pollution hadn’t been identified before launch the production of new product AAA.

b)      Lack of quality control during transporting raw material P by tank truck;

c)      Automatic switch valve has been broken for 2 years;

d)      No working instruction for manual operation of switching silos.

 

4.4. Prepare solutions and action plan

4.4.1. Check effectiveness of existing control measures

 

Year 2010, some control actions have been launched after the pollution incident, I have checked and reviewed the effectiveness during production in March.

 

Table 4: Previous action plan and effectiveness

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4.4.2. Evaluate risks of root causes

Basing on the effectiveness of current control measures, a risk evaluation has been done to each root cause. The results show that we need to improve the following items:

 

 

  Table 5: Risk evaluation of root causes

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4.4.3. Program new action plan et get valitation

A new action plan is prepared with project team in order to eliminate risks of reoccuration of the incident of pollution. (Please see action plan in 4.5.)  It has been validated after fully discussion.

 

From the root causes analysis, we have identified the weakness in the existing quality management system à Risks of production process haven’t been fully identified before trial production of new product in the mixing station.

 

Focus on this problem, two risks analysis methods had been proposed: “What-if” (Check-list) and “PFMEA” (Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis). After discussion and comparison between two methods, PFMEA is chosen as the solution.

 

 Table 6: Comparsion of solutions

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4.5 Follow up action plan

From March to May 2011, there has been one production per week. I have presented to workshops during production in order to follow up the action plan: 

- Check the progress of each action

- Make sure the implementation of new checklist and procedures;

Detailed checklist example please refer to Appendix 4: Checklist of Transfer RM P

Detailed logic diagram example please refer to Appendix 5: Logic diagram of Production Process in Mixing Station

- Communication with responsible department mangers

- Regular Meeting by project team in order to review and update action plan

 

Table 7: Reinforce action plan and follow up

 

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4.6. Continuous improvement - PFMA

From root cause analysis of the key quality incident in 2010, we have identified a weakness of existing quality management system: risks identification and prevention are not sufficient before launching new product in the mixing station. We have decided to implement PFMEA method to improve the risk analysis and quality control of quality management system.

 

From May of 2011, we have started to practice PFMEA to the production in mixing station, following below 5 steps to pilot the implementation of PFMEA:

Step 1: Initialization

a)        Assembly of the team

Support Expert: V. GRANIER

Pilot : M.LI & P. LENFANT

Team members: C. DELAUNAY, D. TORGUE, P. LEMIERRE

b)        Define the scope of process

Product AAA: transport raw material à Production à Dispatch

Installations: Expedition workshop à Mixing Station à Weight Bridge

c)         Planning

Complete the 1st version of PFMEA by July 31st 2011.

 

Step 2: Establishment of flowchart

Basing on the logic grammas we have completed for the transport and production, breaking down process into steps, flowchart has been completed.

 

 Table 8: Process flow chart form

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Step 3: Identification and assessment of potential failures

Several meetings have been organized with the technician of mixing station who is the direct leader on site during each operation. Step by step following the flow chart, we are now working on identification and assessment each operation: function(s), potential failure mode(s), failure mode effect(s), failure mode cause(s), and controls for detecting or preventing the failure mode(s);



Table 9: Process FMEA form

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Step 4: Prioritizing and defining the action plan

A failure mode is given the ranking 1–10 for assessment of its severity, occurrence and detestability. (See Appendix 5: PFMEA Ranking Reference Tables)

Please refer to Appendix 6: PFMEA Ranking Reference Tables.

 

After ranking the severity, the occurrence and the detectability, the RPN (Risk Priority Numbers) can be easily calculated by multiplying these three numbers: RPN = O × S × D.

 

Figure 17: RPN

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The RPN plays an important part in the choice of an action against failure modes. They are threshold values in the evaluation of these actions. The failure modes that have the highest RPN should be given the highest priority for corrective action. This means it is not always the failure modes with the highest severity numbers that should be treated first. There could be less severe failures, but which occur more often and are less detectable.

Once this is done it is easy to determine the areas of greatest concern. Then we will organize a meeting with all concerned departments, in order to recommend actions with targets, responsibility and dates of implementation. These actions can include specific inspection, testing or quality procedures

 

Step 5: Follow up the action plan and verify its effectiveness

Once the actions have been implemented in the process, the new RPN should be checked, to confirm the improvements. Whenever a process changes, the PFMEA should be updated.

 

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5. Result and Prospect

5.1. Result

In the section of definition of project, there are several questions to explain the project objective and expectations. Now, the result could be explained as well by answers to these questions:

From analysis of 2010 quality data of rejects, 3 problems have been highlighted. After reviewed current control measures and evaluated criticality within these three problems. “Pollution of raw material in mixing station” is identified as the key problem.

After investigation and collecting of facts, a root cause diagram have been constructed, and found out 4 root causes. After evaluation the effectiveness of current control measures, two causes are still not fully under control today.

A reinforce action plan have prepared with responsible departments: labels, logic diagram, check-list… According last 3 month on site monitoring of production, new actions have been implemented effectively. Quality result of mixing station is table.

From the root causes analysis, we have identified one weakness in current quality management system: Risks identification and prevention are not sufficient before launching new product in the mixing station. We have decided to implement PFMEA method to improve risk analysis and quality control. The implementation has been started from production in mixing station, then to be integrated into quality management system.

Above results approved that the project objective has been reached.

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5.2 Lessons Learnt and Prospect

Fos site has never stopped trialing and experimenting to deliver innovation to support the ambitions of Kerneos. In several months, there will another new product to be lauched in mixing station, how to make sure the successful trial production? According the lessons and experience we learnt from the project, a PDCA cycle has been prepared.

 

There are 4 phases with different tasks:

PLAN = before production:

                        >> develop flow-chart of production process

                        >> use PFMEA to analyze potential failures and prepare control plan

>> test and check installation and equipments

DO = prevention and control measure
                        >>
Write production procedure

            >> Write working instruction, especially for manual operations

            >> Put labels on critical control points in workshops

            >> Train operators

CHECK = during production

            >> Use checklist to follow up critical control points during production

            >> Check the effectiveness of control measures

ACT = after production

            >> Regularly review meeting, re-evaluation

            >> Plan of continuous improvement

            >> Follow performance by indicators

 

 

Figure 18: PDCA of improving trial production

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5.3. Future work

We have decided to integrate PFMEA method into current quality management system, to improve risk analysis and quality control. The implementation has been started at the mixing station, in order to be sure of the successful launch of new products. Further more, we’ll apply PFMEA in a larger scope.



CONCLUSION

The purpose of this project is to improve the quality performance of Kerneos plant at Fos sur Mer. This plant is the most important manufactory of Kerneos in France. Its capacity allows a great flexibility of product ranges, as well as to deliver innovation to support the ambitions of Kerneos. Trials and changes have brought many progress, however at the same time, they have caused more rejects produced in 2010.
 

Fos site quality management system has been certified by ISO9001 since 1995. The system is well maintained by “Improve Quality Process”; the laboratory is equipped with modern automatic instruments; plus high level technical staff. Basing on such good foundation, it’s a challenge to find out a constructive way to improve quality performance. 
 

The methodology used to pilot the project is “7 Steps to solve problems”, combined with “PDCA” and “PFMEA”.
 

Start from analysis of quality result in year 2010 à key quality incidents have been identified à then a root causes analysis has been completed, aiming to one critical incident à four root causes have been identified à after reviewing the effectiveness of current control measures à a reinforced action plan has been put in place à followed up by monitoring production on site has been done over during 3 months à effectiveness is verified by the stable quality performance of mixing station. à Risks of the incident are now considered under good control.
 

From the root causes analysis, one weakness of existing quality management system has been identified: Risks Identification and Prevention are not sufficient before launching new products in the mixing station. PFMEA method has been chosen as the method, to identify and control potential failure modes of the process. The application of PFMEA has started at the mixing station, in order to be sure that the trial production of a new product forecasted in the coming months will be a success. 
 

The method of PFMEA is proposed to be integrated into the existing quality management system for continuous improvement.
 

This project report will be communicated within Kerneos industrial sites in order to learn lessons and share good practices of improving quality performance.

 

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REFERENCES

 

[1]     1908-2008 The Aluminates Pioneers From Cement Fondu to Kerneos, Kerneos, version 2008.

[2]     Manual for the management of quality health and safety at work. MAQ-S001G, Révsion21, Kerneos Siege

[3]     Tour de mélange Interface homme/machine Manuel Utilisateur, Révision 14-12-2009, Kerneos Usine Fos sur Mer

[4]     Procédure DEMARRAGE STATION DE MELANGE, Révision 17-02-2011, Kerneos Usine Fos sur Mer

[5]     Kerneos Web, available online http://www.kerneos.com (05-06-2011)

[6]     Fondements méthodologiques de l’amélioration continue et de la résolution des problèmes, UTC, Master Management Qualité © 2010 G. Farges, available online http://www.utc.fr/master-qualite (15-03-2011)

[7]     AMDEC & Arbre de Défaillance - Assurer et manager la confiance face au risque, 2010 J.Escande, available online http://www.utc.fr/master-qualite (20-03-2011)

[8]     PDCA, available online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PDCA (03-05-2011)

[9]     Root cause analysis, available online http://www.thinkreliabilicom/Root-Cause-Analysis-CM-Basics.aspx (15-04-2011)

[10] FMEA, available online http://www.siliconfareast.com/fmea.htm (05-05-2011)

[11] FMEA, available online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Failure_mode_and_effects_analysis (10-05-2011)

[12] PFMEA, available online http://www.qualitytrainingportal.com/resources/fmea/ (05-05-2011)

[13] Techniques d'analyses de la fiabilité du système – Procédure d'analyse des modes de défaillance et de leurs effets (AMDE), Norme NF EN 60812 Août 2006

 

 

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APPENDICES

 

 

Appendix 1 : Kerneos process in the plant [2]

 

 

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Appendix 2: Develop new product process

 

 

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Appendix 3: Root Causes Analysis Diagram

 

 

 

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Appendix 4: Checklist of Transfer RM P

 

 

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Appendix 5: Logic diagram of Production Process in Mixing Station

 

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Appendix 6: PFMEA Ranking Reference Tables

 

                                                                                 Occurrence Ranking

                                          

                                                                                 Severity Ranking

 

                                                                                Detectability Ranking

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Appendix 7: Fuel COQ analysis 

 

Analyse de Livraison des Combustibles

et des Certificats de Qualité

 

                                                                                         1. Location : l’Usine Fos sur Mer

                                                                                         2. Période : novembre 2010 – février 2011

                                                                                         3. Fournisseurs des combustibles:

 

 

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                                                                                             4. Analyse des Certificats de Qualité des Fournisseurs

                                                                                                 Bilan

                                                                                                 Détail

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                                                                                             5. Besoins de l’usine Fos sur Mer :

                                                                                            Paramètres d’Environnement : Tous les paramètres dans la Liste 1

                                                                                            Paramètres de Qualité et Sécurité : Viscosité, Point éclaire, PCI, Teneur en eau, Teneur en soufre, Na et K.

                                                                                            Les Paramètres dans le Certificat de Qualité :

                                                                                            Une fois par mois par produit : Tous les paramètres dans la Liste 1 

                                                                                             - avec garantie par le fournisseur de produit stable.

                                                                                            Chaque camion : un Certificat de Qualité avec les paramètres dans la Liste 2

Remarque : les cellules vides sont les informations manquantes des fournisseurs

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